Vector Control Methods

IVM is a holistic approach to managing vector populations and is based on a solid understanding of the interrelationship between the vector, the environment and humans. Such understanding leads to the selection and deployment of the most cost-effective and sustainable intervention(s), either individually or combined— the objective being to achieve the maximum possible reduction or local elimination of the disease. The table below summarizes the common interventions currently used for the vectors of major human diseases. Click on each control method to access more information on that method.

Table of chemical-based and non-chemical vector control methods.
Control MethodBrief DescriptionDisease TargetsMajor Vectors Targeted
CHEMICAL-BASED VECTOR CONTROL METHODS
Adulticides
Timely application of long-lasting chemical insecticides on the walls and ceilings of houses in order to kill the adult vectors that land on these surfaces.Malaria, lymphatic filariasis, visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar), Chagas diseaseIndoor biting/resting female Anopheles mosquitoes; phelbotomine sandflies; reduviid bugs
Sleeping under insecticide-impregnated polyethylene, polyester or cotton net to prevent bites from disease-baring insects.Malaria, lymphatic filariasisvisceral leishmaniasis(kala-azar)Indoor biting/resting female Anopheles mosquitoes; phelbotomine sandflies
  • Other Insecticide-Impregnated Materials
Use of insecticide-impregnated clothing, coverings (blankets), door and window blinds, etc to prevent human-vector contact and bitesMalaria, dengue, lymphatic filariasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), onchocerciasisAnopheles, Aedes, Culex mosquitoes; phelbotomine sandflies; tsetse flies; Simulium damnosum black flies
  • Molluscicides
The use of molluscicides and insecticides to kill disease vectors in the adult stages.Schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, dengueFresh-water snails (Biomphilaria, Bulinus, Onchomelania); Anopheles, Aedes, Culex mosquitoes
  • Insect Traps
Insecticide-impregnated traps targeting flying vectors; may also have an attractant (color or light)Malaria, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) Anopheles, Aedes, Culex mosquitoes; tsetse flies
Chemical LarvicidesThe release of chemicals on water bodies and surfaces to kill larvae and pupae of insect vectors.Malaria, dengue,lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasisAnopheles, Aedes, Culex mosquitoes; Simulium damnosum black flies
NON-CHEMICAL VECTOR CONTROL METHODS
Environmental:
Permanent environmental changes aimed at the elimination of local vector breeding areasMalaria, dengue,lymphatic filariasis, schistosomiasisAnopheles, Aedes, Culex mosquitoes; Fresh-water snails (Biomphilaria, Bulinus, Onchomelania)
Temporary environmental changes to disrupt the reproductive cycle of a vectorMalaria, dengue,lymphatic filariasis, schistosomiasisAnopheles, Aedes, Culex mosquitoes; Fresh-water snails (Biomphilaria,Bulinus, Onchomelania)
House ModificationAn improvement in the housing structure to restrict entry of disease vectorsMalaria, lymphatic filariasis, Chagas diseaseIndoor biting/resting female Anopheles mosquitoes; reduviid bugs
Larviciding:
Use of natural predators (tilapia and other fish) that feed on the larvae and pupae of mosquito vectorslymphatic filariasisAnopheles, Aedes, Culex mosquitoes;
The use of bacteria against mosquito larvae or pupae (e.g. Baccillus thuringiensis)Malaria, dengue, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasisAnopheles, Aedes, Culex mosquitoes; Simulium damnosum black flies
Non-larvivorous natural predatorsThe use of natural predators against disease vectors (e.g. molluscivorous fish, crawfish and crabs)SchistosomiasisFresh-water snails (Biomphilaria, Bulinus, Onchomelania);
Polystyrene beadsFormation of a layer on top of the breeding water body to prevent the larvae and pupae from breathingMalaria, dengue,lymphatic filariasisMosquitoes
OTHER
Topical RepellantsUse of topical insecticides to repel biting insect vectors as a personal protection measure.Malaria, dengue,lymphatic filariasis;  African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)Mosquitoes; tsetse flies